Physics revision for igcse

Photosynthesis The process by which plants produce their own food using carbon dioxide, water and light energy. Phototropism A tropism growth or movement in response to light. Chloroplasts are found mainly in the palisade layer, and the spongy layer contains air spaces to allow gas exchange.

The focal length of the lenses are …. Artificial plasmids are often used as cloning vectors. For example, a gene causing baldness would mask the effect of a hair-colour gene. There has been a greater demand on land for space, resources, and food. Active transport requires special membrane proteins and energy from respiration.

Stem cells Undifferentiated cells that have the potential to form a wide variety of different cell types. Denatured Enzymes that are denatured have unfolded protein structures and can no longer catalyse a reaction.

In yeast, this produces carbon dioxide, ethanol and energy. Humans have 46 chromosomes in every cell. In aerobic respiration, glucose and oxygen combine to make carbon dioxide and water, and energy.

Our body makes antibodies to target the harmless antigen, so that when the real virulent pathogen enters our body, we have the memory cells and antibodies ready to destroy it before it can multiply and cause disease.

The pleural membrane in the thorax forms an airtight pleural cavity. Animal cells store carbohydrates as glycogen while plant store starch. Higher temperature increases the movement of water molecules out of the leaf.

Plant cells are enclosed in a rigid cell wall. The sex chromosomes are the 45th and 46th chromosomes in humans. Bacteria use mitosis as a form of reproduction asexual reproduction. The parent cell divides twice to give four non-identical daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.

Pyruvate can be converted into acetyl-CoA, the main input for the Krebs cycle, or it can be metabolized into ethanol or lactic acid in anaerobic respiration fermentation.

IIT JEE Physics : Optics previous 15 years questions & answers.

The duodenum is relatively short and it is where the digestive enzymes from the pancreas are secreted. Triglycerides The typical form of fat storage in cells. Humans have two copies of each gene in their cells. Organism are adapted to their environment. Higher humidity reduces the concentration gradient so water molecules leave the leaf slower.

Sodium-potassium pump A pump in the cell membrane responsible for maintaining relatively high concentrations of potassium ions but low concentrations of sodium ions inside the cell. If the mutation occurs in a body cell, it could start to multiply uncontrollably, known as cancer.

These messages are sent by nerves faster or hormones slower. Specialised Adapted for a particular biological function. The second part of the small intestine is called the ileum, which is specialized for the absorption of digested food.

Xylem vessels are dead, hollow tubular cells joined together that have had the ends of the cells removed. Throughout the course of his academic training and career, Dr Szeto has received numerous awards for achievements in both scholastics and research.

Fermenters are used to grow a single type of microbe under carefully controlled conditions. Gene transfer The incorporation of foreign DNA into the cells of an organism, usually via a vector such as a plasmid or a genetically engineered virus.

He has also had the opportunity to present his research findings at a number of international conferences. Without potassium to help enzymes work, plants show yellow leaves with dead spots.

The first part of the small intestine is called the duodenum. The opposite occurs during exhalation. Amylases break down starch, proteases break down protein, and lipases break down fat. The green pigment chlorophyll, found in chloroplasts, absorbs light energy for photosynthesis.

Enzymes usually work best at body temperature and neutral pH. It is a single-stranded with thymine replaced by uracil.

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Organelles Membrane-bound structures in a cell which carry out particular functions.Cambridge IGCSE Physics Study and Revision Guide 2nd edition and millions of other books are available for Amazon Kindle.

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Gravitational field strength at a point is defined as the gravitational force per unit mass at that point. Newton's law of gravitation: The (mutual) gravitational force F between two point masses M and m separated by a distance r is given by. Subject Help - If you know what you are looking for check out the resources available for each have collected quality resources that cover curriculum related material.

We also have a list of interactive sites ideal for revision. Agony Elephant - Maybe you wanted to use the (now famous) Agony Elephant service?We have experts in Maths, Physics, English, Music, Biology and Geography. Heat Transfer and explaining physical changes and physical properties using a particle model.

Introduction to heat transfer - c onduction (and thermal conductivity), convection and radiation gcse physics revision notes. Specific heat capacity: How to determine it, use of data, calculations and thermal energy stores gcse physics revision notes.

Physics revision for igcse
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