This necessity might have partly affected the locomotion pattern, determining a slightly higher metabolic energy cost and stride frequency than could be measured on a straight path.
Since limited scholarly attention has been paid to the year history of artistic-skating, Mary Louise Adams has presented an especially detailed and layered analysis when compared to all previous skating histories.
University of Toronto Press, For these measurements, authors did not take air resistance into account, which might have played a partial role in the first part of our trials when the highest speed recorded for the skater was almost 3 m s—1.
Who is not numb from the monotony of unnecessary violence in male sport? Moreover, all the participants taking part in this study subjectively chose an upright posture when travelling at the slowest speeds while leaning slightly forward at high speeds.
This assumption is supported by evidence reported in a paper by de Koning et al. You are not currently authenticated.
As soon as technology evolved, in approximately the 13th century, ice skates also enabled humans to travel at speeds that could not be achieved by walking, and at lower metabolic costs. The duration of a stride was defined as the time between two successive kicks performed by the same leg.
For a given mass-specific metabolic power, faster speeds are achieved on more recent skates by means of longer strides performed at low frequency. Time courses of values recorded from the gyroscopes during the last three minutes of each trial were used to calculate stride frequency and, by knowing the mean speed of progression, stride length.
It seems clear how the development of ice skates has aimed at reducing the resistance opposed by the ice, taking advantage of more suitable materials and shapes. On the other hand, this could be partially compensated by the lower resistance to progression offered by prepared ice rather than by natural ice.
Results Bioenergetic results The energy cost of locomotion on ice with the skates investigated is shown as a function of progression speed in Fig. In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: DeLoca Adams, Mary Louise. One participant took part in these tests; he was initially pushed by the experimenter and then glided while standing still, with his trunk slightly flexed.
Bone skate speeds appear to lay in quite a limited range and, in terms of metabolic cost, skating on them was about twice as demanding as walking on firm terrain; nevertheless, skating on bones might have been safer than walking on ice.
This can explain in part the independence of cost and speed in the present study and could support the hypothesis that cost would not increase for slightly higher speeds, when naturally a more aerodynamic position would further decrease the proportion of power required to overcome air resistance.
The cost of walking on snow at 0. Readers will want to come to the aid of her argument that says we would do well to encourage more effeminacy in our culture. Figure Skating, Masculinity, and the Limits of Sport. Differences between the skate models Stride frequencies and lengths are summarized in Table 2which also gives the level of significance for differences between skates models and, hence, historical periods.
On the basis of our results, it would be interesting to calculate approximately how far humans could skate in the past and the maximum speed that they could sustain over a given distance; in order to do this, two fundamental assumptions need to be taken into account.
Units of measure were converted from ml O2 to J, according to the respiratory exchange ratio see text for further details.
The widespread presence of water, and thus the numerous frozen lakes in winter, together with the advantage given by pulling a load while skating rather than carrying it by foot, seems to explain why humans first began skating on ice.
View popup Table 2. View freely available titles: Nowadays, ice-skating is about one-third cheaper than running on firm terrain, and for a given metabolic power much higher speeds can be sustained; only cycling on modern racing bicycles allows for faster travelling.
At low speeds, air resistance could be considered negligible, whilst for the fastest speed adopted with the modern skates 9.
Its tradition uses classical music, odd costumes, sequins, and sometimes fancy feathers. Stride frequency and length measurements Authors recorded the kinematics of the right leg and the trunk of three participants by means of two inertial sensors Xsens MT9; Enschede, The Netherlands.Scholarly Analysis of a Figure Skating Article Essay Amanda HIST Analysis of a Scholarly Article January 31st, Mary Louise Adams’ “The Manly History of a 'Girls' Sport': Gender, Class and the Development of Nineteenth-Century Figure Skating” is an article that sheds light on the role that gender played on figure skating throughout.
Scholarly Analysis of a Figure Skating Article. by Prof | Feb 4, | Uncategorized. Analysis of a Scholarly Article (2 Pages | Words) Mary Louise Adams’ “The Manly History of a ‘Girls’ Sport’: Gender, Class and the Development of Nineteenth-Century Figure Skating” is an article that sheds light on the role that gender played on figure.
Human locomotion on ice: the evolution of ice-skating energetics through history Federico Formenti, Alberto E. Minetti Journal of Experimental Biology ; doi: /jeb Scholarly Analysis of a Figure Skating Article Essay Class and the Development of Nineteenth-Century Figure Skating” is an article that sheds light on the role that gender played on figure skating throughout the nineteenth century.
Amanda HIST Analysis of a Scholarly Article January 31st, Mary Louise Adams’ “The Manly History of a 'Girls' Sport': Gender, Class and the Development of Nineteenth-Century Figure Skating” is an article that sheds light on the role that gender played on figure skating throughout the nineteenth century.
Artistic Impressions is an important book and a long-overdue contribution to the history of figure skating.
Since limited scholarly attention has been paid to the year history of artistic-skating, Mary Louise Adams has presented an especially detailed and layered analysis when compared to all previous skating histories.Download